However, Ethereum’s scaling has progressed slowly, as off-chain solutions and Ethereum competitors became more prevalent in 2021.
Sharding, the chief layer 1 scaling solution, is expected to come to speed only in 2023, and is the transition expected to have a real impact on fees.
Meanwhile, the protocol has continued a switch to Proof-of- stake (POS) consensus expected to gather pace when the Beacon Chain, introduced in December 2020, merges with the Proof of Stake later in 2021.
Beacon Chain would validate the transactions on each shard thus assisting the entire Ethereum 2.0 network in reaching consensus.
However, according to Vitalik himself, implementing some of the ideas for Ethereum has not always happened at the speed he hoped.
According to Vitalik, he under-estimated the complexity of software development.
Additionally, him and his team are now committed to developing the simplest innovations to the problems Ethereum faces, including scalability.